Notes on x11vnc SSL Certificates and Key Management:

The simplest scheme ("x11vnc -ssl TMP") is where x11vnc generates a temporary, self-signed certificate each time (automatically using openssl(1)) and the VNC viewer client accepts the certificate without question (e.g. user clicks "Yes" in a dialog box. Perhaps the dialog allows them to view the certificate too). Also note stunnel's default is to quietly accept all certificates.

The encryption this provides protects against all passive sniffing of the VNC traffic and passwords on the network and so it is quite good, but it does not prevent a Man-In-The-Middle active attack: e.g. an attacker intercepts the VNC client stream and sends it his own Public key for SSL negotiation (pretending to be the server). Then it makes a connection to SSL x11vnc itself and forwards the data back and forth. He can see all the traffic and modify it as well.

Most people don't seem to worry about Man-In-The-Middle attacks these days; they are more concerned about passive sniffing of passwords, etc. Perhaps someday that will change if attack tools are used more widely to perform the attack. NOTE: There are hacker tools like dsniff/webmitm and cain that implement SSL Man-In-The-Middle attacks. They all rely on the client not bothering to check that the cert is valid.

If you are not worried about Man-In-The-Middle attacks you do not have to read the techniques described in the rest of this document.

There are a number of ways to have the client authenticate the SSL x11vnc server. The quickest way perhaps would be to copy (safely) the certificate x11vnc prints out:

26/03/2006 21:12:00 Creating a temporary, self-signed PEM certificate...
...
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIIC4TCCAkqgAwIBAgIJAMnwCaOjvEKaMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBAUAMIGmMQswCQYD
VQQGEwJBVTEOMAwGA1UEBxMFTGludXgxITAfBgNVBAsTGGFuZ2VsYS0xMTQzNDI1
NTIwLjQxMTE2OTEPMA0GA1UEChMGeDExdm5jMS4wLAYDVQQDEyV4MTF2bmMtU0VM
(more lines) ...
-----END CERTIFICATE-----

to the client machine(s) and have the client's SSL machinery (e.g. stunnel, Web Browser, or Java plugin) import the certificate. That way when the connection to x11vnc is made the client can verify that is it the desired server on the other side of the SSL connection.

So, for example suppose the user is using the SSL enabled Java VNC Viewer and has incorporated the x11vnc certificate into his Web browser on the viewing side. If he gets a dialog that the certificate is not verified he knows something is wrong. It may be a Man-In-The-Middle attack, but more likely x11vnc certificate has changed or expired or his browser was reinstalled and/or lost the certificate, etc, etc.

As another example, if the user was using stunnel with his VNC viewer (this is mentioned in this FAQ), e.g. STUNNEL.EXE on Windows, then he would have to set the "CAfile = path-to-the-cert" and "verify = 2" options in the stunnel.conf file before starting up the tunnel. If a x11vnc certificate cannot be verified, stunnel will drop the connection (and print a failure message in its log file).

A third example, using the VNC viewer on Unix with stunnel the wrapper script can be used this way: "ss_vncviewer -verify ./x11vnc.crt far-away.east:0" where ./x11vnc.crt is the copied certificate x11vnc printed out.

As fourth example, our SSVNC enhanced tightvnc viewer can also use these certificate files for server authentication. You can load them via the SSVNC 'Certs...' dialog and set 'ServerCert' to the certificate file you safely copied there.

Note that in principle the copying of the certificate to the client machine(s) itself could be altered by a Man-In-The-Middle attack! You can't win; it is very difficult to be completely secure. It is unlikely the attacker could predict how you were going to send it unless you had, say, done it many times before the same way. SSH is a very good way to send it (but of course it too depends on public keys being sent unaltered between the two machines!).

If you are really paranoid, I'm sure you'll figure out a really good way to transport the certificates. See the Certificate Authority scheme below for a way to make this easier (you just have to do it once).

Saving SSL certificates and keys:

Now, it would be very inconvenient to copy the new temporary certificate every time x11vnc is run in SSL mode. So for convenience there is the "SAVE" keyword to instruct x11vnc to save the certificate it creates:

  x11vnc -ssl SAVE -display :0 ...

This behavior is now the default, you must use "TMP" for a temporary one. It will save the certificate and private key in these files:
  ~/.vnc/certs/server.crt
~/.vnc/certs/server.pem

The ".crt" file contains only the certificate and should be safely copied to the VNC Viewer machine(s) that will be authenticating the x11vnc server. The ".pem" file contains both the certificate and the private key and should be kept secret. (If you don't like the default location ~/.vnc/certs, e.g. it is on an NFS share and you are worried about local network sniffing, use the
-ssldir dir option to point to a different directory.)

So the next time you run "x11vnc -ssl SAVE ..." it will read the server.pem file directly instead of creating a new one.

You can manage multiple SSL x11vnc server keys in this simple way by using:

  x11vnc -ssl SAVE-key2 -display :0 ...

etc, where you put whatever name you choose for the key after "SAVE-". E.g. "-ssl SAVE-fred".

Also, if you want to be prompted to possibly change the made up names, etc. that x11vnc creates (e.g. "x11vnc-SELF-SIGNED-CERT-7762" for the CommonName) for the certificates distinguished name (DN), then use "x11vnc -ssl SAVE_PROMPT ...", "x11vnc -ssl SAVE_PROMPT-fred ..." etc. when you create the key the first time.

Tip: when prompting, if you choose the CommonName entry to be the full internet hostname of the machine the clients will be connecting to then that will avoid an annoying dialog box in their Web browsers that warn that the CommonName doesn't match the hostname.

Passphrases for server keys:

Well, since now with the "SAVE" keyword the certificate and key will be longer lived, one can next worry about somebody stealing the private key and pretending to be the x11vnc server! How to guard against this?

The first is that the file is created with perms 600 (i.e. -rw-------) to make it harder for an untrusted user to copy the file. A better way is to also encrypt the private key with a passphrase. You are prompted whether you want to do this or not when the key is first created under "-ssl SAVE" mode ("Protect key with a passphrase? y/n"). It is suggested that you use a passphrase. The inconvenience is every time you run "x11vnc -ssl SAVE ..." you will need to supply the passphrase to access the private key:

  06/04/2006 11:39:11 using PEM /home/runge/.vnc/certs/server.pem  0.000s

A passphrase is needed to unlock an OpenSSL private key (PEM file).
Enter passphrase>

before x11vnc can continue.

Being your own Certificate Authority:

A very sophisticated way that scales well if the number of users is large is to use a Certificate Authority (CA) whose public certificate is available to all of the VNC clients and whose private key has been used to digitally sign the x11vnc server certificate(s).

The idea is as follows:

The advantage is the CA cert only needs to be distributed once to the various machines, that can be done even before x11vnc server certs are generated.

As above, it is important the CA private key and the x11vnc server key are kept secret, otherwise someone could steal them and pretend to be the CA or the x11vnc server if they copied the key. It is recommended that the x11vnc server keys are also protected via a passphrase (see the previous section).

Optionally, VNC viewer certs and keys could also be generated to enable the x11vnc server to authenticate each client. This is not normally done (usually a simple viewer password scheme is used), but this can be useful in some situations. These optional steps go like this:

• One or more VNC client certs and keys are generated.
• These VNC client certs are signed with the CA private key.
• The VNC client certs+keys are safely distributed to the corresponding client machines.
• x11vnc is told to verify clients by using the CA cert. (e.g. "-sslverify CA")
• When VNC clients (viewers) connect, they must authenticate themselves to x11vnc by using their client key.
Again, it is a good idea if the client private keys are protected with a passphrase, otherwise if stolen they could be used to gain access to the x11vnc server. Once distributed to the client machines, there is no need to keep the client key on the CA machine that generated and signed it. You can keep the client certs if you like because they are public.

How to do the above CA steps with x11vnc:

Some utility commands are provided to ease the cert+key creation, signing, and management: -sslGenCA, -sslGenCert, -sslDelCert, -sslEncKey, -sslCertInfo. They basically run the openssl(1) command for you to manage the certs/keys. It is required that openssl(1) is installed on the machine and available in PATH. All commands can be pointed to an alternate toplevel certificate directory via the -ssldir option if you don't want to use the default ~/.vnc/certs.

1) To generate your Certificate Authority (CA) cert and key run this:

  x11vnc -sslGenCA

Follow the prompts, you can modify any informational strings you care to. You will also be required to encrypt the CA private key with a passphrase. This generates these files:
  ~/.vnc/certs/CA/cacert.pem             (the CA public certificate)
~/.vnc/certs/CA/private/cakey.pem      (the encrypted CA private key)

If you want to use a different directory use -ssldir It must supplied with all subsequent SSL utility options to point them to the correct directory.

2) To generate a signed x11vnc server cert and key run this:

  x11vnc -sslGenCert server

As with the CA generation, follow the prompts and you can modify any informational strings that you care to. This will create the files:
  ~/.vnc/certs/server.crt             (the server public certificate)
~/.vnc/certs/server.pem             (the server private key + public cert)


It is recommended to protect the server private key with a passphrase (you will be prompted whether you want to). You will need to provide it whenever you start x11vnc using this key.

3) Start up x11vnc using this server key:

  x11vnc -ssl SAVE -display :0 ...

(SAVE corresponds to server.pem, see -sslGenCert server somename info on creating additional server keys, server-somename.crt ...)

4) Next, safely copy the CA certificate to the VNC viewer (client) machine(s). Perhaps:

  scp ~/.vnc/CA/cacert.pem clientmachine:.


5) Then the tricky part, make it so the SSL VNC Viewer uses this certificate! There are a number of ways this might be done, it depends on what your client and/or SSL tunnel is. Some examples:

For the SSL Java VNC viewer supplied with x11vnc in classes/ssl/VncViewer.jar or classes/ssl/SignedVncViewer.jar:

• Import the cacert.pem cert into your Web Browser (e.g. Edit -> Preferences -> Privacy & Security -> Manage Certificates -> WebSites -> Import)
• Or Import the cacert.pem cert into your Java Plugin (e.g. run ControlPanel, then Security -> Certificates -> Secure Site -> Import)
When importing, one would give the browser/java-plugin the path to the copied cacert.pem file in some dialog. Note that the Web browser or Java plugin is used for the server authentication. If the user gets a "Site not verified" message while connecting he should investigate further.

For the use of stunnel (e.g. on Windows) one would add this to the stunnel.conf:

  # stunnel.conf:
client = yes
options = ALL
CAfile = /path/to/cacert.pem		# or maybe C:\path\to\cacert.pem
[myvncssl]
accept = 5901
connect = far-away.east:5900

(then point the VNC viewer to localhost:1).

Here is an example for the Unix stunnel wrapper script ss_vncviewer in our SSVNC package:

  ss_vncviewer -verify ./cacert.pem far-away.east:0


Our SSVNC enhanced tightvnc viewer GUI can also use the certificate file for server authentication. You can load it via the SSVNC 'Certs...' dialog and set 'ServerCert' to the cacert.pem file you safely copied there.

Tricks for server keys:

To create additional x11vnc server keys do something like this:

  x11vnc -sslGenCert server myotherkey

and use it this way:
  x11vnc -ssl SAVE-myotherkey ...

The files will be ~/.vnc/certs/server-myotherkey.{crt,pem}

You can also create a self-signed server key:

  x11vnc -sslGenCert server self:third_key

and use it this way:
  x11vnc -ssl SAVE-self:third_key ...

This key is not signed by your CA. This can be handy to have a key set separate from your CA when you do not want to create a 2nd CA cert+key.

Using external CA's:

You don't have to use your own CA cert+key, you can use a third party's instead. Perhaps you have a company-wide CA or you can even have your x11vnc certificate signed by a professional CA (e.g. www.thawte.com or www.verisign.com or perhaps the free certificate service www.startcom.org or www.cacert.org).

The advantage to doing this is that the VNC client machines will already have the CA certificates installed and you don't have to install it on each machine.

To generate an x11vnc server cert+key this way you should generate a "request" for a certicate signing something like this (we use the name "external" in this example, it could be anything you want):

  x11vnc -sslGenCert server req:external

This will create the request file:
  ~/.vnc/certs/server-req:external.req

Which you should send to the external CA. When you get the signed certificate back from them, save it in the file:
  ~/.vnc/certs/server-req:external.crt

and create the .pem this way:
  mv  ~/.vnc/certs/server-req:external.key    ~/.vnc/certs/server-req:external.pem
chmod 600 ~/.vnc/certs/server-req:external.pem
cat ~/.vnc/certs/server-req:external.crt >> ~/.vnc/certs/server-req:external.pem

You also rename the two files (.crt and .pem) to have a shorter basename if you like. E.g.:
  mv  ~/.vnc/certs/server-req:external.pem  ~/.vnc/certs/server-ext.pem
mv  ~/.vnc/certs/server-req:external.crt  ~/.vnc/certs/server-ext.crt

and the use via "x11vnc -ssl SAVE-ext ...", etc.

On the viewer side make sure the external CA's certificate is installed an available for the VNC viewer software you plan to use.

Using Client Keys for Authentication:

You can optionally create certs+keys for your VNC client machines as well. After distributing them to the client machines you can have x11vnc verify the clients using SSL. Here is how to do this:

  x11vnc -sslGenCert client dilbert
x11vnc -sslGenCert client wally
x11vnc -sslGenCert client alice
...

As usual, follow the prompts if you want to change any of the info field values. As always, it is a good idea (although inconvenient) to protect the private keys with a passphrase. These files are created:
  ~/.vnc/certs/clients/dilbert.crt
~/.vnc/certs/clients/dilbert.pem
...

Note that these are kept in a clients subdirectory.

Next, safely copy the .pem files to each corresponding client machine and incorporate them into the VNC viewer / SSL software (see the ideas mentioned above for the CA and server keys). The only difference is these certificates might be referred to as "My Certificates" or "Client Certificates". They are used for client authentication (which is relatively rare for SSL).

After copying them you can delete the clients/*.pem files for extra safety because the private keys are not needed by the x11vnc server. You don't really need the clients/*.crt files either (because they have been signed by the CA). But they could come in handy for tracking or troubleshooting, etc.

Now start up x11vnc and instruct it to verify connecting clients via SSL and the CA cert:

  x11vnc -ssl SAVE -sslverify CA

The "CA" special token instructs x11vnc to use its CA signed certs for verification.

For arbitrary self-signed client certificates (no CA) it might be something like this:

  x11vnc -ssl SAVE -sslverify path/to/client.crt
x11vnc -ssl SAVE -sslverify path/to/client-hash-dir
x11vnc -ssl SAVE -sslverify path/to/certs.txt

Where client.crt would be an individual client certificate; client-hash-dir a directory of file names based on md5 hashes of the certs (see
-sslverify); and certs.txt signifies a single file full of client certificates.

Finally, connect with your VNC viewer using the key. Here is an example for the Unix stunnel wrapper script ss_vncviewer: using client authentication (and the standard server authentication with the CA cert):

  ss_vncviewer -mycert ./dilbert.pem -verify ./cacert.pem far-away.east:0

Our SSVNC enhanced tightvnc viewer can also use these openssl .pem files (you can load them via Certs... -> MyCert dialog).

It is also possible to use -sslverify on a per-client key basis, and also using self-signed client keys (x11vnc -sslGenCert client self:dilbert)

Now a tricky part is to get Web browsers or Java Runtime to import and use the openssl .pem cert+key files. See the next paragraph on how to convert them to pkcs12 format. If you find a robust way to import them and and get them to use the cert please let us know!

Here is how to convert our openssl crt/pem files to pkcs12 format (contains both the client certificate and key) that can be read by Web browsers and Java for use in client authentication:

  openssl pkcs12 -export -in mycert.crt -inkey mycert.pem -out mycert.p12

it will ask for a passphrase to protect mycert.p12. Some software (e.g. Java ControlPanel) may require a non-empty passphrase. Actually, since our .pem contains both the certificate and private key, you could just supply it for the -in and remove the -inkey option. It appears that for certificates only importing, our .crt file is sufficient and can be read by Mozilla/Firefox and Java...

If you have trouble getting your Java Runtime to import and use the cert+key, there is a workaround for the SSL-enabled Java applet. On the Web browser URL that retrieves the VNC applet, simply add a "/?oneTimeKey=..." applet parameter (see ssl-portal for more details on applet parameters; you don't need to do the full portal setup though). The value of the oneTimeKey will be the very long string that is output of the onetimekey program found in the classes/ssl x11vnc directory. Or you can set oneTimeKey=PROMPT in which case the applet will ask you to paste in the long string. These scheme is pretty ugly, but it works. A nice application of it is to make one time keys for users that have already logged into a secure HTTPS site via password. A cgi program then makes a one time key for the logged in user to use: it is passed back over HTTPS as the applet parameter in the URL and so cannot be sniffed. x11vnc is run to use that key via -sslverify.

Update: as of Apr 2007 in the 0.9.1 x11vnc tarball there is a new option setting "-users sslpeer=" that will do a switch user much like -unixpw does, but this time using the emailAddress field of the Certificate subject of the verified Client. This mode requires -sslverify turned on to verify the clients via SSL. This mode can be useful in situations using -create or -svc where a new X server needs to be started up as the authenticated user (but unlike in -unixpw mode, the unix username is not obviously known).

Revoking Certificates:

A large, scaled-up installation may benefit from being able to revoke certificates (e.g. suppose a user's laptop with a vnc client or server key is compromised.) You can use this option with x11vnc: -sslCRL. See the info at that link for a guide on what openssl(1) commands you will need to run to revoke a certificate.

You can get information about your keys via -sslCertInfo. These lists all your keys:

  x11vnc -sslCertInfo list
x11vnc -sslCertInfo ll

(the latter is long format).

These print long output, including the public certificate, for individual keys:

  x11vnc -sslCertInfo server
x11vnc -sslCertInfo dilbert
x11vnc -sslCertInfo all             (every key, very long)


If you want to add a protecting passphrase to a key originally created without one:

  x11vnc -sslEncKey SAVE
x11vnc -sslEncKey SAVE-fred


To delete a cert+key:

  x11vnc -sslDelCert SAVE
x11vnc -sslDelCert SAVE-fred
x11vnc -sslDelCert wally

(but rm(1) will be just as effective).

Chained Certificates:

There is increasing interest in using chained CA's instead of a single CA. The merits of using chained CA's are not described here besides to say its use may make some things easier when a certificate needs to be revoked.

x11vnc supports chained CA certificates. We describe a basic use case here.

Background: Of course the most straight forward way to use SSL with x11vnc is to use no CA at all (see above): a self-signed certificate and key is used and its certificate needs to be safely copied to the client side. This is basically the same as the SSH style of managing keys. Next level up, one can use a single CA to sign server keys: then only the CA's certificate needs to be safely copied to the client side, this can happen even before any server certs are created (again, see all of the discussion above.)

With a certificate chain there are two or more CA's involved. Perhaps it looks like this:

  root_CA ---> intermediate_CA ---> server_cert

Where the arrow basically means "signs".

In this usage mode the client (viewer-side) will have root_CA's certificate available for verifying (and nothing else.) If the viewer only received server_cert's certificate, it would not have enough info to verify the server. The client needs to have intermediate_CA's cert as well. The way to do this with x11vnc (i.e. an OpenSSL using app) is to concatenate the server_cert's pem and the intermediate_CA's certificate together.

For example, suppose the file intermediate_CA.crt had intermediate_CA's certificate. And suppose the file server_cert.pem had the server's certificate and private key pair as described above on this page. We need to do this:

  cat intermediate_CA.crt >> server_cert.pem

(Note: the order of the items inside the file matters; intermediate_CA must be after the server key and cert) and then we run x11vnc like this:
  x11vnc -ssl ./server_cert.pem ...

Then, on the VNC viewer client side, the viewer authenticates the x11vnc server by using root_CA's certificate. Suppose that is in a file named root_CA.crt, then using the SSVNC wrapper script
ss_vncviewer (which is also included in the SSVNC package) as our example, we have:
  ss_vncviewer -verify ./root_CA.crt hostname:0

(where "hostname" is the machine where x11vnc is running.) One could also use the SSVNC GUI setting Certs -> ServerCert to the root_CA.crt file. Any other SSL enabled VNC viewer would use root_CA.crt in a similar way.

Creating Chained Certificates:

Here is a fun example using VeriSign's "Trial Certificate" program. Note that VeriSign has a Root CA and also an Intermediate CA and uses the latter to sign customers certificates. So this provides an easy way to test out the chained certificates mechanism with x11vnc.

First we created a test x11vnc server key:

  openssl genrsa -out V1.key 1024

then we created a certificate signing request (CSR) for it:
  openssl req -new -key V1.key -out V1.csr

(we followed the prompts and supplied information for the various fields.)

Then we went to VeriSign's page http://www.verisign.com/ssl/index.html and clicked on "FREE TRIAL" (the certificate is good for 14 days.) We filled in the forms and got to the point where it asked for the CSR and so we pasted in the contents of the above V1.csr file. Then, after a few more steps, VeriSign signed and emailed us our certificate.

The VeriSign Trial certificates were found here:

  http://www.verisign.com/support/verisign-intermediate-ca/Trial_Secure_Server_Root/index.html
http://www.verisign.com/support/verisign-intermediate-ca/trial-secure-server-intermediate/index.html

The former was pasted into a file V-Root.crt and the latter was pasted into V-Intermediate.crt

We pasted our Trial certificate that VeriSign signed and emailed to us into a file named V1.crt and then we typed:

  cat V1.key V1.crt > V1.pem
cat V1.pem V-Intermediate.crt > V1-combined.pem
chmod 600 V1.pem V1-combined.pem

So now the file V1-combined.pem has our private key and (VeriSign signed) certificate and VeriSign's Trial Intermediate certificate. Next, we start x11vnc: x11vnc -ssl ./V1-combined.pem ... and finally, on the viewer side (SSVNC wrapper script example): ss_vncviewer -verify ./V-Root.crt hostname:0 One will find that only that combination of certs and keys will work, i.e. allow the SSL connection to be established. Every other combination we tried failed (note that ss_vncviewer uses the external stunnel command to handle the SSL so we are really testing stunnel's SSL implementation on the viewer side); and so the system works as expected. VNC Client Authentication using Certificate Chains: Now, going the other way around with the client authenticating himself via this chain of SSL certificates, x11vnc is run this way: x11vnc -ssl SAVE -sslverify ./V-Root.crt ... (note since the server must always supply a cert, we use its normal self-signed, etc., one via "-ssl SAVE" and use the VeriSign root cert for client authentication via -sslverify. The viewer must now supply the combined certificates, e.g.: ss_vncviewer -mycert ./V1-combined.pem hostname:0 Using OpenSSL and x11vnc to create Certificate Chains: Although the x11vnc CA mechanism (-sslGenCA and -sslGenCert; see above) was designed to only handle a single root CA (to sign server and/or client certs) it can be coerced into creating a certificate chain by way of an extra openssl(1) command. We will first create two CA's via -sslGenCA; then use one of these CA to sign the other; create a new (non-CA) server cert; and append the intermediate CA's cert to the server cert to have everything needed in the one file. Here are the commands we ran to do what the previous paragraph outlines. First we create the two CA's, called CA_root and CA_Intermediate here, in separate directories via x11vnc: x11vnc -ssldir ~/CA_Root -sslGenCA (follow the prompts, we included "CA_Root", e.g. Common Name, to aid identifying it) x11vnc -ssldir ~/CA_Intermediate -sslGenCA (follow the prompts, we included "CA_Intermediate", e.g. Common Name, to aid identifying it) Next backup CA_Intermediate's cert and then sign it with CA_Root: mv ~/CA_Intermediate/CA/cacert.pem ~/CA_Intermediate/CA/cacert.pem.ORIG cd ~/CA_Root openssl ca -config ./CA/ssl.cnf -policy policy_anything -extensions v3_ca -notext -ss_cert ~/CA_Intermediate/CA/cacert.pem.ORIG -out ~/CA_Intermediate/CA/cacert.pem Note that it is required to cd to the ~/CA_Root directory and run the openssl command from there. You can print out info about the cert you just modified by: openssl x509 -noout -text -in ~/CA_Intermediate/CA/cacert.pem Now we create an x11vnc server cert named "test_chain" that is signed by CA_Intermediate: x11vnc -ssldir ~/CA_Intermediate -sslGenCert server test_chain (follow the prompts) You can print out information about this server cert just created via this command: x11vnc -ssldir ~/CA_Intermediate -sslCertInfo SAVE-test_chain This will tell you the full path to the server certificate, which is needed because we need to manually append the CA_Intermediate cert for the chain to work: cat ~/CA_Intermediate/CA/cacert.pem >> ~/CA_Intermediate/server-test_chain.pem Now we are finally ready to use it. We can run x11vnc using this server cert+key by either this command: x11vnc -ssldir ~/CA_Intermediate -ssl SAVE-test_chain ... or this command: x11vnc -ssl ~/CA_Intermediate/server-test_chain.pem ... since they are equivalent (both load the same pem file.) Finally we connect via VNC viewer that uses CA_Root to verify the server. As before we use ss_vncviewer: ss_vncviewer -verify ~/CA_Root/CA/cacert.pem hostname:0 Client Certificates (see above) work in a similar manner. So although it is a little awkward with the extra steps (e.g. appending the CA_Intermediate cert) it is possible. If you want to do this entirely with openssl(1) you will have to learn the openssl commands corresponding to -genCA and -genCert. You may be able to find guides on the Internet to do this. Starting with x11vnc 0.9.10, you can have it print out the wrapper scripts it uses via: -sslScripts (you will still need to fill in a few pieces of information; ask if it is not clear from the source code.)   More info: See also this article for some some general info and examples using stunnel and openssl on Windows with VNC. Also http://www.stunnel.org/faq/certs.html is a very good source of information on SSL certificate creation and management.