Using Apache as an SSL Gateway to multiple x11vnc servers inside a firewall:


The typical way to allow access to x11vnc (or any other VNC server) running on multiple workstations inside a firewall is via SSH. The user somewhere out on the Internet logs in to the SSH gateway machine and uses port forwarding (e.g. ssh -t -L 5900:myworkstation:5900 user@gateway) to set up the encrypted channel that VNC is then tunneled through. Next he starts up the VNC viewer on the machine where he is sitting directed to the local tunnel port (e.g. localhost:0).

The SSH scheme is nice because it is a widely used and well tested login technique for users connecting to machines inside their company or home firewall. For VNC access it is a bit awkward, however, because SSH needs to be installed on the Viewer machine and the user usually has to rig up his own port redirection plumbing (however, see our other tool).

Also, some users have restrictive work environments where SSH and similar applications are prohibited (i.e. only outgoing connections to standard WWW ports from a browser are allowed, perhaps mediated by a proxy server). These users have successfully used the method described here for remote access.

With the SSL support in x11vnc and the SSL enabled Java VNC viewer applet, a convenient and secure alternative exists that uses the Apache webserver as a gateway. The idea is that the company or home internet connection is already running apache as a web server (either SSL or non-SSL) and we add to it the ability to act as a gateway for SSL VNC connections. The only thing needed on the Viewer side is a Java enabled Web Browser: the user simply enters a URL that starts the entire VNC connection process. No VNC or SSH specific software needs to be installed on the viewer side machine.

The stunnel VNC viewer stunnel wrapper script provided (ss_vncviewer) can also take advantage of the method described here with its -proxy option.


Simpler Solutions: This apache SSL VNC portal solution may be too much for you. It is mainly intended for automatically redirecting to MULTIPLE workstations inside the firewall. If you only have one or two inside machines that you want to access, the method described here is overly complicated! See below for some simpler (and still non-SSH) encrypted setups.

Also see the recent (Mar/2010) desktop.cgi x11vnc desktop web login CGI script that achieves much of what the method describes here (especially if its 'port redirection' feature is enabled.)


There are numerous ways to achieve this with Apache. We present one of the simplest ones here.

Important: these sorts of schemes allow incoming connections from anywhere on the Internet to fixed ports on machines inside the firewall. Care must be taken to implement and test thoroughly. If one is paranoid one can (and should) add extra layers of protection. (e.g. extra passwords, packet filtering, SSL certificate verification, etc).

Also, it is easy to miss the point that unless precautions are taken to verify SSL Certificates, then the VNC Viewer is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks (but not to the more common passive sniffing attacks). Note that there are hacker tools like dsniff/webmitm and cain that implement SSL Man-In-The-Middle attacks. They rely on the client not bothering to check the cert.

The Holy Grail: a single https port (443)

Before we discuss the self-contained apache examples here, we want to mention that many x11vnc users who read this page and implement the apache SSL VNC portal ask for something that (so far) seems difficult or impossible to do entirely inside apache:

It is the last item that makes it tricky (otherwise the method described on this page will work). If you are interested in such a solution and are willing to run a separate helper program (connect_switch) look here. Also, see this apache patch.


The scheme described here sets up apache on the firewall/gateway as a regular Web proxy into the intranet and allows connections to a single fixed port on a limited set of machines.

The configuration described in this section does not use the mod_ssl apache module (the optional configuration described in the section "Downloading the Java applet to the browser via HTTPS" does take advantage of mod_ssl)

In this example suppose the gateway machine running apache is named "www.gateway.east" (e.g. it may also provide normal web service). We also choose the Internet-facing port for this VNC service to be port 563. One could choose any port, including the default HTTP port 80.

Detail: We choose 563 because it is the rarely used SNEWS port that is often allowed by Web proxies for the CONNECT method. The idea is the user may be coming out of another firewall using a proxy (not the one we describe here, that is, the case when two proxies are involved, e.g. one at work and another Apache (described here) at home redirecting into our firewall; the "double proxy" or "double firewall" problem). Using port 563 simplifies things because CONNECT's to it are usually allowed by default.

We also assume all of the x11vnc servers on the internal machines are all listening on port 5915 ("-rfbport 5915") instead of the default 5900. This is to limit any unintended proxy redirections to a lesser used port, and also to stay out of the way of normal VNC servers on the same machines. One could obviously implement a scheme that handles different ports, but we just discuss this simple setup here.

So we basically assume x11vnc has been started this way on all of the workstations to be granted VNC access:

  x11vnc -ssl SAVE -http -display :0 -forever -rfbauth ~/.vnc/passwd -rfbport 5915
i.e. we force SSL VNC connections, port 5915, serve the Java VNC viewer applet, and require a VNC password (another option would be -unixpw). The above command could also be run out of inetd(8). It can also be used to autodetect the user's display and Xauthority data.


These sections are added to the httpd.conf apache configuration file on www.gateway.east:

# In the global section you need to enable these modules.
# Note that the ORDER MATTERS! mod_rewrite must be before mod_proxy
# (so that we can check the allowed host list via rewrite)
LoadModule rewrite_module modules/
LoadModule proxy_module modules/
LoadModule proxy_connect_module modules/
LoadModule proxy_ftp_module modules/
LoadModule proxy_http_module modules/
<IfDefine SSL>
LoadModule ssl_module modules/

# Near the bottom of httpd.conf you put the port 563 virtual host:

Listen 563

<VirtualHost *:563>

   # Allow proxy CONNECT requests *only* to port 5915.
   # If the machines use different ports, e.g. 5916 list them here as well:
   ProxyRequests On
   AllowCONNECT 5915

   RewriteEngine On

   # Convenience rules to expand applet parameters.  These do not have a trailing "/"
   # /vnc   for http jar file downloading:
   RewriteRule /vnc/([^/]+)$               /vnc/$1/index.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&urlPrefix=_2F_vnc_2F_$1 [R,NE,L]
   RewriteRule /vnc/trust/([^/]+)$         /vnc/$1/index.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&urlPrefix=_2F_vnc_2F_$1&trustAllVncCerts=yes [R,NE,L]
   RewriteRule /vnc/proxy/([^/]+)$         /vnc/$1/proxy.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&urlPrefix=_2F_vnc_2F_$1&forceProxy=yes [R,NE,L]
   RewriteRule /vnc/trust/proxy/([^/]+)$   /vnc/$1/proxy.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&urlPrefix=_2F_vnc_2F_$1&forceProxy=yes&trustAllVncCerts=yes [R,NE,L]

   # Read in the allowed host to vnc display mapping file.  It looks like:
   #   host1     15
   #   host2     15
   #   ...
   # the display "15" means 5815 for http applet download, 5915 for SSL vnc.
   RewriteMap vnchosts txt:/dist/apache/conf/vnc.hosts

   # Proxy: check for the CONNECT hostname and port being in the vnc.hosts list.
   RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^CONNECT [NC]
   RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^(.*):(.*)$
   RewriteCond ${vnchosts:%1|NOTFOUND} NOTFOUND
   RewriteRule ^.*$ /VNCFAIL [F,L]

   RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^CONNECT [NC]
   RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^(.*):(.*)$
   RewriteCond 59${vnchosts:%1}=%2 !^(.*)=(\1)$
   RewriteRule ^.*$ /VNCFAIL [F,L]

   # Remap /vnc to the proxy http download (e.g. http://host:5815)
   # First, fail if it starts with the string /vnc0:
   RewriteRule ^/vnc0.*            /VNCFAIL [F,L]
   # Next, map the prefix to /vnc0/host:protocol:port
   RewriteRule ^/vnc/([^/]+)/(.*)  /vnc0/$1:http:58${vnchosts:$1|NOTFOUND}/$2  [NE]
   # Drop any not found:
   RewriteRule ^/vnc0.*NOTFOUND.*  /VNCFAIL [F,L]

   # Construct the proxy URL and retrieve it:
   RewriteRule ^/vnc0/([^/]+):([^/]+):([^/]+)/(.*) $2://$1:$3/$4 [P,NE,L]


Then restart apache (perhaps: "apachectl stop; apachectl start").

Note that the listing of allowed internal workstations is done in an external file (/dist/apache/conf/vnc.hosts in the example above), the format is like this:

# allowed vnc hosts file:
hostname1  15
hostname2  15
You list the hostname and the VNC display (always 15 in our example). Only to these hosts will the external VNC viewers be able to connect to (via the HTTP CONNECT method).

The above setup requires mod_rewrite and mod_proxy be enabled in the apache web server. In this example they are loaded as modules (and note that mod_rewrite must be listed before mod_proxy);

The user at the Java enabled Web browser would simply enter this URL into the browser:

to connect to internal workstation host2, etc.

Important: do not put a trailing "/" on the URL, since that will defeat the RewriteRules that look for the hostname at the very end.

There will be a number of SSL certificate, etc, dialogs he will have to respond to in addition to any passwords he is required to provide (this depends on how you set up user authentication for x11vnc).

If a second Web proxy is involved (i.e. the user's browser is inside another firewall and policy requires using a Web proxy server) then use this URL:

This will involve downloading a signed java viewer applet jar file that is able to interact with the internal proxy for the VNC connection. See this FAQ for more info on how this works. Note: sometimes with the Proxy case if you see 'Bad Gateway' error you will have to wait 10 or so seconds and then hit reload. This seems to be due to having to wait for a Connection Keepalive to terminate...

For completeness, the "trust" cases that skip a VNC certificate dialog (discussed below) would be entered as:


You can of course choose shorter or more easy to remember URL formats. Just change the Convenience RewriteRules in httpd.conf.


Port Variations:

Note that you can run this on the default HTTP port 80 instead of port 563. If you do not expect to have a browser connecting from inside a proxying firewall (where sometimes only connections to ports 443 and 563 are allowed) this should be fine. Use "80" instead of "563" in the httpd.conf config file (you may need to merge it with other default port 80 things you have there).

Then the URL's will be a bit simpler:


Besides 80 one could use any other random port number (since there are so many port scans on 80, a little obscurity might be useful).

One option is to use port "443" (the default https:// port) instead of "563". In this case Apache is not configured for mod_ssl; we just happen to use port "443" in the way any random port would be used. This could be handy if the Viewer side environment is restrictive in that it only allows outgoing connections to ports 80 and 443 (and, say, you didn't want to use port 80, or you wanted to use 80 for something else). Another reason for using 443 would be some web proxy environments only allow the CONNECT method to go to port 443 (and not even the case 563 we use above).



Let's go through the httpd.conf additions in detail from the top.

The LoadModules directives load the necessary apache modules. Note that mod_rewrite must be listed first. If you are compiling from scratch something like this worked for us:

  ./configure --enable-proxy=shared --enable-proxy-connect=shared --enable-ssl=shared --enable-rewrite=shared --prefix=/dist/apache

Then the VirtualHost *:563 virtual host section starts.

The "ProxyRequests On" and "AllowCONNECT 5915" enable the web server to forward proxy requests to port 5915 (and only this port) INSIDE the firewall. Think about the implications of this thoroughly and test it carefully.

The RewriteRule's are for convenience only so that the URL entered into the Web browser does not need the various extra parameters, e.g.:

(or otherwise make direct edits to index.vnc to set these parameters). The forceProxy=yes parameter is passed to the applet to force the use of a outgoing proxy socket connection. Use it only if the Web browser is inside a separate Web proxying environment (i.e. large corporation)

The rewrites with parameter urlPrefix are described under Tricks for Better Response. The "trust" ones (also described under Tricks) with trustAllVncCerts tell the Java VNC applet to skip a dialog asking about the VNC Certificate. They are a bit faster and more reliable than the original method. In the best situation they lead to being logged in 20 seconds or less (without them the time to login can be much longer since a number of connections must timeout).

All of the x11vnc Java Viewer applet parameters are described in the file classes/ssl/README

The external file /dist/apache/conf/vnc.hosts containing the allowed VNC server hostnames is read in. Its 2nd column contains the VNC display of the host (always 15 in our example; if you make it vary you will need to adjust some lines in the httpd.conf accordingly, e.g. AllowCONNECT). This list is used to constrain both the Jar file download URL and the proxy CONNECT the VNC viewer makes to only the intended VNC servers.

Limiting the proxy CONNECT is done with the two sets of RewriteCond conditions.

Limiting the Jar file download URL is done in the remaining 4 RewriteRule's.

Note that these index.vnc and VncViewer.jar downloads to the browser are not encrypted via SSL, and so in principle could be tampered with by a really bad guy. The subsequent VNC connection, however, is encrypted through a single SSL connection (it makes a CONNECT straight to x11vnc). See below for how to have these initial downloads encrypted as well (if the apache web server has SSL/mod_ssl, i.e. https, enabled and configured).

Unfortunately the Java VNC viewer applet currently is not able to save its own list of Certificates (e.g. the user says trust this VNC certificate 'always'). This is because an applet it cannot open local files, etc. Sadly, the applet cannot even remember certificates in the same browser session because it is completely reinitialized for each connection (see below).


Too Much?

If these apache rules are a little too much for you, there is a little bit simpler scheme where you have to list each of the individual machines in the httpd.conf and ssl.conf files. It may be a little more typing to maintain, but perhaps being more straight forward (less RewriteRule's) is desirable.



To see example x11vnc output for a successful https://host:5900/ connection with the Java Applet see This Page.


Some Ideas for adding extra authentication, etc. for the paranoid:  

Using non-Java viewers with this scheme:

The ss_vncviewer stunnel wrapper script for VNC viewers has the -proxy option that can take advantage of this method.

   ss_vncviewer -proxy www.gateway.east:563   host1:15
For the case of the "double proxy" situation (see below) supply both separated by a comma.
   ss_vncviewer -proxy,www.gateway.east:563   host1:15
For the Enhanced TightVNC Viewer (ssvnc) GUI (it uses ss_vncviewer on Unix) put 'host1:15' into the 'VNC Server' entry box, and here are possible Proxy/Gateway entries
   Proxy/Gateway:   www.gateway.east:563
then click on the 'Connect' button.


Downloading the Java applet to the browser via HTTPS:

To have the Java applet downloaded to the user's Web Browser via an encrypted (and evidently safer) SSL connection the Apache webserver should be configured for SSL via mod_ssl.

It is actually possible to use the x11vnc Key Management utility "-sslGenCert" to generate your Apache/SSL .crt and .key files. (In brief, run something like "x11vnc -sslGenCert server self:apache" then copy the resulting self:apache.crt file to conf/ssl.crt/server.crt and extract the private key part from self:apache.pem and paste it into conf/ssl.key/server.key). Setting the env var REQ_ARGS='-days 1095' before running x11vnc will bump up the expiration date (3 years in this case).

Or you can use the standard methods described in the Apache mod_ssl documentation to create your keys. Then restart Apache, usually something like "apachectl stop" followed by "apachectl startssl"

In addition to the above sections in httpd.conf one should add the following to ssl.conf:

   SSLProxyEngine  On

   RewriteEngine On

   # Convenience rules to expand applet parameters.  These do not have a trailing "/"
   # /vnc   http jar file downloading:
   RewriteRule /vnc/([^/]+)$                        /vnc/$1/index.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vnc_2F_$1 [R,NE,L]
   RewriteRule /vnc/proxy/([^/]+)$                  /vnc/$1/proxy.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vnc_2F_$1&forceProxy=yes [R,NE,L]
   # (we skipped the "trust" ones above, put them in if you like)
   # /vncs  https jar file downloading:
   RewriteRule /vncs/([^/]+)$                      /vncs/$1/index.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vncs_2F_$1 [R,NE,L]
   RewriteRule /vncs/proxy/([^/]+)$                /vncs/$1/proxy.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vncs_2F_$1&forceProxy=yes [R,NE,l]
   RewriteRule /vncs/trust/([^/]+)$                /vncs/$1/index.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vncs_2F_$1&trustAllVncCerts=yes [R,NE,L]
   RewriteRule /vncs/trust/proxy/([^/]+)$          /vncs/$1/proxy.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vncs_2F_$1&forceProxy=yes&trustAllVncCerts=yes [R,NE,L]

   # Convenience rules used for the connect_switch helper (requires Listen above):
   RewriteRule /vnc443/([^/]+)$                    /vncs/$1/index.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=443&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vncs_2F_$1 [R,NE,L]
   RewriteRule /vnc443/proxy/([^/]+)$              /vncs/$1/proxy.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=443&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vncs_2F_$1&forceProxy=yes [R,NE,L]
   RewriteRule /vnc443/trust/([^/]+)$              /vncs/$1/index.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=443&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vncs_2F_$1&trustAllVncCerts=yes [R,NE,L]
   RewriteRule /vnc443/trust/proxy/([^/]+)$        /vncs/$1/proxy.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=443&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vncs_2F_$1&forceProxy=yes&trustAllVncCerts=yes [R,NE,L]

   # Read in the allowed host to vnc display mapping file.  It looks like:
   #   host1     15
   #   host2     15
   #   ...
   # the display "15" means 5915 for SSL VNC and 5815 for http applet download.
   RewriteMap vnchosts txt:/dist/apache/conf/vnc.hosts

   # Remap /vnc and /vncs to the proxy http download (e.g. https://host:5915)
   # First, fail if it starts with the string /vnc0:
   RewriteRule ^/vnc0.*            /VNCFAIL [F,L]
   # Next, map the prefix to /vnc0:host:protocol:port
   RewriteRule ^/vnc/([^/]+)/(.*)  /vnc0/$1:http:58${vnchosts:$1|NOTFOUND}/$2  [NE]
   RewriteRule ^/vncs/([^/]+)/(.*) /vnc0/$1:https:59${vnchosts:$1|NOTFOUND}/$2 [NE]
   # Drop any not found:
   RewriteRule ^/vnc0.*NOTFOUND.*  /VNCFAIL [F,L]

   # Construct the proxy URL and retrieve it:
   RewriteRule ^/vnc0/([^/]+):([^/]+):([^/]+)/(.*) $2://$1:$3/$4 [P,NE,L]

This is all in the "<VirtualHost _default_:443>" section of ssl.conf.

The user could then point the Web Browser to:

for the "double proxy" case. (Important: do not put a trailing "/" on the URL, since that will defeat the RewriteRules.)

As with the httpd.conf case, the external file (/dist/apache/conf/vnc.hosts in the above example) contains the hostnames of the allowed VNC servers.

Note that inside the firewall the Java applet download traffic is not encrypted (only over the Internet is SSL used) for these cases:

However for the special "vncs" rules above:
the Java applet download is encrypted via SSL for both legs. Note that the two legs are two separate SSL sessions. So the data is decrypted inside an apache process and reencrypted by the apache process for the 2nd SSL session inside the same apache process (a very small gap one might overlook).

The "vncs/trust" ones are like the "trust" ones described earlier

and similarly for the httpsPort ones. See Tricks for Better Response.

In all of the above cases the VNC traffic from Viewer to x11vnc is encrypted end-to-end in a single SSL session, even for the "double proxy" case because the CONNECT method is used (there are actually two CONNECT's for the "double proxy" case). This part (the VNC traffic) is the most important part to have encrypted.

Note that the Certificate dialogs the user has in his web browser will be for the Apache Certificate, while for the Java applet it will be the x11vnc certificate.

Note also that you can have Apache serve up the Jar file VncViewer.jar and/or index.vnc/proxy.vnc instead of each x11vnc if you want to.

The rules in ssl.conf are similar to the ones in httpd.conf and so are not discussed in detail. The only really new thing is the /vncs handling to download the applet jar via HTTPS on port 5915.

The special entries "/vnc443" are only used for the special helper program (connect_switch) for the https port 443 only mode discussed here.


INETD automation:

The "single-port" (i.e. 5915) HTTPS applet download and VNC connection aspect shown here is convenient and also enables having x11vnc run out of inetd. That way x11vnc is run on demand instead of being run all the time (the user does not have to remember to start it). The first connections to inetd download index.vnc and the Jar file (via https) and the the last connection to inetd establishes the SSL VNC connection. Since x11vnc is restarted for each connection, this will be a bit slower than the normal process.

For example, the /etc/inetd.conf line could be:

  5915 stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/local/bin/
where the script looks something like this:

/usr/local/bin/x11vnc -inetd -oa /var/log/x11vnc-15.log \
        -ssl SAVE -http -unixpw -localhost \
        -display :0 -auth /home/THE_USER/.Xauthority
where, as usual, the inetd launching needs to know which user is typically using the display on that machine. One could imagine giving different users different ports, 5915, 5916, etc. to distinguish (then the script would need to be passed the username). mod_rewrite could be used to automatically map username in the URL to his port number.

A better way is to use the "-display WAIT:cmd=FINDDISPLAY" feature to autodetect the user and Xauthority data:


/usr/local/bin/x11vnc -inetd -oa /var/log/x11vnc-15.log \
        -ssl SAVE -http -unixpw -localhost -users unixpw= \
(we have used the alias
-find for "-display WAIT:cmd=FINDDISPLAY".) This way the user must supply his Unix username and password and then his display and Xauthority data on that machine will be located and returned to x11vnc to allow it to attach. If he doesn't have a display running on that machine or he fails to log in correctly, the connection will be dropped.

The variant "-display WAIT:cmd=FINDCREATEDISPLAY" (aliased by "-create") will actually create a (virtual or real) X server session for the user if one doesn't already exist. See here for details.

To enable inetd operation for the non-HTTPS Java viewer download (port 5815 in the above httpd.conf example) you will need to run x11vnc in HTTPONCE mode on port 5815: For example, the /etc/inetd.conf line could be:

  5815 stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/local/bin/x11vnc \
       -inetd -prog /usr/local/bin/x11vnc -oa /var/log/x11vnc-15.log \
       -http_ssl -display WAIT:cmd=HTTPONCE
where the long inetd.conf line has been split. Note how the -http_ssl tries to automatically find the .../classes/ssl subdirectory. This requires the -prog option available in x11vnc 0.8.4 (a shell script wrapper, e.g. /usr/local/bin/ can be used to work around this).

Also note the use of "-ssl SAVE" above. This way a saved server.pem is used for each inetd invocation (rather generating a new one each time as happens for "-ssl TMP"). Note that it cannot have a protecting passphrase because inetd will not be able to supply it.

Another option is:

  5815 stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/local/bin/x11vnc \
       -inetd -httpdir /usr/local/share/x11vnc/classes/ssl \
       -oa /var/log/x11vnc-15.log -display WAIT:cmd=HTTPONCE
(this also requires a feature found in x11vnc 0.8.4).  

Other Ideas:

- The above schemes work, but they are a bit complicated with all of the rigging. There should be more elegant ways to configure Apache to do these, but we have not found them (please let us know if you discover something nice). However, once this scheme has been set up and is working it is easy to maintain and add/delete workstations, etc.

- In general Apache is not required, but it makes things convenient. The firewall itself could do the port redirection via its firewall rules. Evidently different Internet-facing ports would be required for each workstation. This could be set up using iptables rules for example. If there were just one or two machines this would be the easiest method. For example:

  iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -d --dport 5901 -j DNAT --to-destination
  iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -d --dport 5902 -j DNAT --to-destination
Where is the internet IP address of the gateway. In this example is redirected to the internal machine and is redirected to another internal machine, both running x11vnc -ssl ... in SSL mode. For this example, the user would point the web browser to, e.g.:
or using the stunnel wrapper script:
One can achieve similar things with dedicated firewall/routers (e.g. Linksys) using the device's web or other interface to configure the firewall.

If the user may be coming out of a firewall using a proxy it may be better to redirect ports 443 and 563 (instead of 5901 and 5902) to the internal machines so that the user's proxy will allow CONNECTing to them.

- The redirection could also be done at the application level using a TCP redirect program (e.g. ip_relay or fancier ones). Evidently more careful internal hostname checking, etc., could be performed by the special purpose application to add security. See connect_switch which is somewhat related.

- One might imagine the ProxyPass could be done for the VNC traffic as well (for the ssl.conf case) to avoid the CONNECT proxying completely (which would be nice to avoid). Unfortunately we were not able to get this to work. Since HTTP is a request-response protocol (as opposed to a full bidirectional link required by VNC that CONNECT provides) this makes it difficult to do. It may be possible, but we haven't found out how yet.

All of the x11vnc Java Viewer applet parameters are described in the file classes/ssl/README


Tricks for Better Response and reliability:

The "original scheme" using httpd.conf and ssl.conf rewrites without urlPrefix and trustAllVncCerts above should work OK, but may lead to slow and/or unreliable loading of the applet and final connection to x11vnc. The following are what I do now to get better response and reliability. YMMV.

The problem with the "original scheme" is that there is a point where the VNC Viewer applet can try up to 3 times to retrieve the x11vnc certificate, since it needs to get it to show it to you and ask you if you accept it. This can add about 45 seconds to the whole process (which takes 1 to 1.5 minutes with all the dialogs) since a couple of those connections must time out. The "trust" items in the config add a parameter trustAllVncCerts=yes similar to the forceProxy=yes parameter. This can cut the total time to the VNC password prompt down to 15 seconds which is pretty good. (Note by ignoring the certificate this does not protect against man-in-the-middle attacks which are rare, but maybe the won't be so rare in the future... see dsniff/webmitm and cain)

First make sure the x11vnc SSL certificate+key is the same as Apache's. (otherwise you may get one extra dialog and/or one extra connection that has to time out).

The following RewriteRule's are the same now advocated in the instructions above.

The httpsPort and urlPrefix= parameters give hints to the applet to improve connecting: This is what goes in httpd.conf:

   RewriteEngine On
   RewriteRule /vnc/([^/]+)$               /vnc/$1/index.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&urlPrefix=_2F_vnc_2F_$1 [R,NE]
   RewriteRule /vnc/trust/([^/]+)$         /vnc/$1/index.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&urlPrefix=_2F_vnc_2F_$1&trustAllVncCerts=yes [R,NE]
   RewriteRule /vnc/proxy/([^/]+)$         /vnc/$1/proxy.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&urlPrefix=_2F_vnc_2F_$1&forceProxy=yes [R,NE]
   RewriteRule /vnc/trust/proxy/([^/]+)$   /vnc/$1/proxy.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&urlPrefix=_2F_vnc_2F_$1&forceProxy=yes&trustAllVncCerts=yes [R,NE]
The httpsPort and urlPrefix provide useful hints to the VNC Viewer applet when it connects to x11vnc to glean information about Proxies, certificates, etc.

This is what goes into ssl.conf:

   RewriteEngine On
   RewriteRule /vnc/([^/]+)$                /vnc/$1/index.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vnc_2F_$1 [R,NE]
   RewriteRule /vnc/proxy/([^/]+)$          /vnc/$1/proxy.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vnc_2F_$1&forceProxy=yes [R,NE]
   RewriteRule /vncs/([^/]+)$              /vncs/$1/index.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vncs_2F_$1 [R,NE]
   RewriteRule /vncs/proxy/([^/]+)$        /vncs/$1/proxy.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vncs_2F_$1&forceProxy=yes [R,NE]
   RewriteRule /vncs/trust/([^/]+)$        /vncs/$1/index.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vncs_2F_$1&trustAllVncCerts=yes [R,NE]
   RewriteRule /vncs/trust/proxy/([^/]+)$  /vncs/$1/proxy.vnc?CONNECT=$1+5915&PORT=563&httpsPort=443&GET=1&urlPrefix=_2F_vncs_2F_$1&forceProxy=yes&trustAllVncCerts=yes [R,NE]
The rest is the same.

The httpsPort and urlPrefix and GET provide useful hints to the VNC Viewer applet when it connects to x11vnc to glean information about Proxies, certificates, etc, and also for the ultimate VNC connection (GET speeds this up by sending a special HTTP GET to cause x11vnc to immediately switch to the VNC protocol).

To turn these into URLs, as was done above, take the string in the RewriteRule, e.g. /vncs and turn it into https://gateway/vncs/machinename Similarly for non-https: http://gateway:563/vnc/machinename

If you use the 'trust' ones, you are performing NO checks, visual or otherwise, on the VNC SSL certificate. It is trusted without question. This speeds things up because it avoids a dialog about certificates, but of course has some risk WRT Man in the Middle attacks. I don't recommend them. It is better to use /vnc or /vncs and the first time you connect carefully check the Certificate and then tell your Browser and Java Virtual Machine to trust the certificate 'Always'. Then if you later get an unexpected dialog, you know something is wrong. Nearly always it is just a changed or expired certificate, but better safe than sorry...